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Is fear of death a reasonable appropriate response? What conditions are required and what are appropriate conditions for feeling fear of death? What is meant by fear, and how much fear is appropriate?
According to Kagan for fear in general to make sense, three conditions should be met: If the three conditions are not met, fear is an inappropriate emotion. He argues, that death does not meet the first two criteria, even if death is a "deprivation of good things" and even if one believes in a painful afterlife.
Because death is certain, it also does not meet the third criterion, but he grants that the unpredictability of when one dies may be cause to a sense of fear.
The survey found a negative correlation between fear of death and "religious concern". Both religiousness and spirituality were related to positive psychosocial functioning, but only church-centered religiousness protected subjects against the fear of death.
Xenophobia and Neophobia Fear of the unknown or irrational fear is caused by negative thinking worry which arises from anxiety accompanied with a subjective sense of apprehension or dread. Irrational fear shares a common neural pathway with other fears, a pathway that engages the nervous system to mobilize bodily resources in the face of danger or threat.
Many people are scared of the "unknown". The irrational fear can branch out to many areas such Fear of what is different or the hereafter, the next ten years or even tomorrow. Chronic irrational fear has deleterious effects since the elicitor stimulus is commonly absent or perceived from delusions.
In these cases specialists use False Evidence Appearing Real as a definition, alternatively therapists use it as acronym for Feeling frightened, Expecting bad things to happen, Actions and attitudes that can help, and Rewards and results in Rx programs like Coping Cat.
Such fear can create comorbidity with the anxiety disorder umbrella. That can lead to habits such as laziness and procrastination. For example, parents tell their children not to talk to strangers in order to protect them. In school they would be motivated to not show fear in talking with strangers, but to be assertive and also aware of the risks and the environment in which it takes place.
Ambiguous and mixed messages like this can affect their self-esteem and self-confidence. Mechanism[ edit ] Often laboratory studies with rats are conducted to examine the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear responses. However the rats did show signs of avoidance learning, not fear, but simply avoiding the area that brought pain to the test rats.
The avoidance learning of rats is seen as a conditioned responseand therefore the behavior can be unconditioned, as supported by the earlier research. Species-specific defense reactions SSDRs or avoidance learning in nature is the specific tendency to avoid certain threats or stimuli, it is how animals survive in the wild.
Humans and animals both share these species-specific defense reactions, such as the flight-or-fight, which also include pseudo-aggression, fake or intimidating aggression and freeze response to threats, which is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system.
These SSDRs are learned very quickly through social interactions between others of the same species, other species, and interaction with the environment. The animal that survives is the animal that already knows what to fear and how to avoid this threat.
An example in humans is the reaction to the sight of a snake, many jump backwards before cognitively realizing what they are jumping away from, and in some cases it is a stick rather than a snake.
As with many functions of the brain, there are various regions of the brain involved in deciphering fear in humans and other nonhuman species. The amygdala plays an important role in SSDR, such as the ventral amygdalofugal, which is essential for associative learningand SSDRs are learned through interaction with the environment and others of the same species.
An emotional response is created only after the signals have been relayed between the different regions of the brain, and activating the sympathetic nervous systems; which controls the flight, fight, freeze, fright, and faint response.
Bollesa researcher at University of Washington, wanted to understand species-specific defense reactions and avoidance learning among animals, but found that the theories of avoidance learning and the tools that were used to measure this tendency were out of touch with the natural world.
Even domesticated animals have SSDRs, and in those moments it is seen that animals revert to atavistic standards and become "wild" again. Bolles states that responses are often dependent on the reinforcement of a safety signal, and not the aversive conditioned stimuli. This safety signal can be a source of feedback or even stimulus change.
Intrinsic feedback or information coming from within, muscle twitches, increased heart rate, are seen to be more important in SSDRs than extrinsic feedback, stimuli that comes from the external environment.
Bolles found that most creatures have some intrinsic set of fears, to help assure survival of the species.Fear Of Difference quotes - 1. What restrains us from killing is partly fear of punishment, partly moral scruple, and partly what may be described as a sense of humor Read more quotes and sayings about Fear Of Difference.
This is crucially why fear and anxiety are different, the underlying triggers that cause fear and anxiety are different. Fear is an emotion whereas anxiety is a set of symptoms. With this in mind we need to turn our attention to what the causes of anxiety and panic are and how to address them.
There are 4 core elements that we need to consider. This impairment can cause different species to lack the sensation of fear, and often can become overly confident, confronting larger peers, or walking up to predatory creatures.
If we haven’t seen something before, it’s new and different to us.-The new I-phone-The new baby-The new lover-The new burger-The new movie-The new black man, which move in across the street, whose name is Barack Obama.
Some people are just afraid of new different things.
But people who fear what they don’t know have their reasons. Phobias are anxiety disorders involving fear or anxiety that is excessive or out of proportion to the object or situation.
Clinicians assess whether a client’s fear or anxiety is normal or excessive by using factors specific to cultural norms. An old elevator or a high bridge may spark feelings of fear or anxiety.
Phobias come in many different forms. Acrophobia is the fear of heights. Aviophobia is the fear of flying. Felinophobia is the fear of cats. Myxophobia is the fear of slime.
Xyrophobia is the fear of razors. While some are well-recognized, others are unheard of, but whatever the phobia, the person suffering from it is living with fear and anxiety.