Betts An Era of Despair Fascism and Nazism Behind the military pageant and public festival that made up the official image of the new regimes in Italy and Germany was to be found the decomposition of nineteenth-century liberalism. The "new orders" established a different set of values and purposes. Ideologically, the state, not the individual, counted.
Early relationship[ edit ] Mussolini and Adolf Hitler were not always allies. While Mussolini wanted the expansion of fascist ideology throughout the world, he did not initially appreciate Hitler and the Nazi Party. I conceived the profoundest admiration for the great man south of the Alpswho, full of ardent love for his people, made no pacts with the enemies of Italy, but strove for their annihilation by all ways and means.
What will rank Mussolini among the great men of this earth is his determination not to share Italy with the Marxistsbut to destroy internationalism and save the fatherland from it. They know that Benito Mussolini is constructing a colossal empire which will Fascism and nazism in europe the Roman Empire in the shade.
We shall put up Mussolini is a typical representative of our Alpine race She had played an important role in the foundation of the fascist movement in Italy and promoting it to Italians and the world through supporting the arts.
There were also nationalist reasons why Germany and Italy were not immediate allies. Italian irredentist claims sought the return of these lands to Italian rule Italia irredenta. After the war had ended, Italy was rewarded with these territories under the terms of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
While Hitler did not pursue this claim, many in the Nazi Party felt differently. Racism[ edit ] Nazism differed from Italian fascism in that it had a stronger emphasis on race in terms of social and economic policies.
Though both ideologies denied the significance of the individual, Italian fascism saw the individual as subservient to the state whereas Nazism saw the individual as well as the state as ultimately subservient to the race.
Unlike Hitler, Mussolini repeatedly changed his views on the issue of race according to the circumstances of the time. InMussolini promoted the development of the Italian race such as when he said this: The nation is not simply the sum of living individuals, nor the instrument of parties for their own ends, but an organism comprisedof the infinite series of generations of which the individuals are only transient elements; it is the supreme synthesis of all the material and immaterial values of the race.
We need to create ourselves; we of this epoch and this generation, because it is up to us, I tell you, to make the face of this country unrecognizable in the next ten years.
In ten years comrades, Italy will be unrecognizable! We will create a new Italian, an Italian that does not recognize the Italian of yesterday Mussolini did not believe that race alone was that significant.
Mussolini viewed himself as a modern-day Roman Emperora cultural elite and wished to " Italianise " the parts of the Italian Empire he had desired to build. It is a feeling, not a reality: Nothing will ever make me believe that biologically pure races can be shown to exist today.
Only a revolution and a decisive leader can improve a race, even if this is more a sentiment than a reality. But I repeat that a race can change itself and improve itself.
I say that it is possible to change not only the somatic lines, the height, but really also the character. Influence of moral pressure can act deterministically also in the biological sense. Croatian, Slovene, German and French toponyms were systematically Italianized.
Against ethnic Slovenes, he ran an especially violent kind of fascist Italianization policy. Acts of fascist violence were not hampered by the authorities, such as the burning down of the Narodni dom Community Hall of ethnic Slovenes in Trieste in Trieste, carried out at night by fascists with the connivance of the police on 13 July After the complete destruction of all Slovene minority cultural, financial and other organizations and the continuation of violent fascist Italianization policies of ethnic cleansing, one of the first anti-fascist organizations in Europe, TIGRemerged inco-ordinating the Slovene resistance against Fascist Italy until its dismantlement by the fascist secret police inafter which some of TIGR ex members joined Slovene Partisans.
For Mussolini, inclusion of people in a fascist society depended on their loyalty to the state. Meetings between Mussolini and Arab dignitaries from the colony of Libya convinced Mussolini that the Arab population was worthy to be given extensive civil rights and allowed Muslims to join a Muslim section of the Fascist Party, namely the Muslim Association of the Lictor.Fascism and National Socialism have been compared in numerous ways.
Yet since movements that resembled or imitated them occurred in many countries between the wars, including France, Spain, much of Eastern Europe and even Britain and Ireland, a key question is why such movements came to power only in Italy and Germany. Fascism and Nazism were seen as malignant outgrowths of modern society, slowly consuming it.
The metaphor "twilight", most frequently applied to the state of affairs in France, suggested the end of an era. Nazism is a form of fascism. As I understand the concept fascism is not an economic theory, but rather a political belief in the power of the state over the rights of the individual.
I think it is possible to outline a list of features that are typical of what I would like to call Ur-Fascism, or Eternal Fascism. These features cannot be organized into a system; many of them contradict each other, and are also typical of other kinds of despotism or fanaticism.
But it is enough that one of them be present to allow fascism to coagulate . fas·cism (făsh′ĭz′əm) n. 1. often Fascism a.
A system of government marked by centralization of authority under a dictator, a capitalist economy subject to stringent governmental controls, violent suppression of the opposition, and typically a policy of belligerent nationalism and racism.
b. A political philosophy or movement based on or. Fascism Rises in Europe Comparing and Contrasting Use a chart to compare Mussolini's formed the German brand of fascism known as Nazism. The party adopted the swastika, or hooked cross, as its symbol.
The Nazis also set up a private formed in eastern Europe after World War I also were falling.