References and Further Reading 1.
Environmentalists use the metaphor of the earth as a "spaceship" in trying to persuade countries, industries and people to stop wasting and polluting our natural resources. Since we all share life on this planet, they argue, no single person or institution has the right to destroy, waste, or use more than a fair share of its resources.
But does everyone on earth have an equal right to an equal share of its resources? The spaceship metaphor can be dangerous when used by misguided idealists to justify suicidal policies for sharing our resources through uncontrolled immigration and foreign aid. In their enthusiastic but unrealistic generosity, they confuse the ethics of a spaceship with those of a lifeboat.
A true spaceship would have to be under the control of a captain, since no ship could possibly survive if its course were determined by committee.
Spaceship Earth certainly has no captain; the United Nations is merely a toothless tiger, with little power to enforce any policy upon its bickering members. If we divide the world crudely into rich nations and poor nations, two thirds of them are desperately poor, and only one third comparatively rich, with the United States the wealthiest of all.
Metaphorically each rich nation can be seen as a lifeboat full of comparatively rich people. In the ocean outside each lifeboat swim the poor of the world, who would like to get in, or at least to share some of the wealth.
What should the lifeboat passengers do? First, we must recognize the limited capacity of any lifeboat.
For example, a nation's land has a limited capacity to support a population and as the current energy crisis has shown us, in some ways we have already exceeded the carrying capacity of our land.
Adrift in a Moral Sea So here we sit, say 50 people in our lifeboat. To be generous, let us assume it has room for 10 more, making a total capacity of Suppose the 50 of us in the lifeboat see others swimming in the water outside, begging for admission to our boat or for handouts. We have several options: The boat swamps, everyone drowns.
Complete justice, complete catastrophe. Since the boat has an unused excess capacity of 10 more passengers, we could admit just 10 more to it. But which 10 do we let in? How do we choose? Do we pick the best 10, "first come, first served"? And what do we say to the 90 we exclude?
If we do let an extra 10 into our lifeboat, we will have lost our "safety factor," an engineering principle of critical importance. For example, if we don't leave room for excess capacity as a safety factor in our country's agriculture, a new plant disease or a bad change in the weather could have disastrous consequences.
Suppose we decide to preserve our small safety factor and admit no more to the lifeboat. Our survival is then possible although we shall have to be constantly on guard against boarding parties.
While this last solution clearly offers the only means of our survival, it is morally abhorrent to many people. Some say they feel guilty about their good luck. My reply is simple: The needy person to whom the guilt-ridden person yields his place will not himself feel guilty about his good luck.
If he did, he would not climb aboard. The net result of conscience-stricken people giving up their unjustly held seats is the elimination of that sort of conscience from the lifeboat.Morality and ethical theories are efforts at guidelines that help specify most every facet of human nature.
Understanding the differences between right and incorrect has captured the heads of the universes greatest minds for s of old ages. Welcome to our sixth annual special issue featuring FP's Leading Global Thinkers. This essay will discuss the concept of foreign aid.
It will then explain the different types of foreign aid and therein discuss its advantages and disadvantages.
Finally it will bring to the fore, a soluble (find suitable word) conclusion. This essay delves deeply into the origins of the Vietnam War, critiques U.S. justifications for intervention, examines the brutal conduct of the war, and discusses the .
Just War Theory. Just war theory deals with the justification of how and why wars are fought. The justification can be either theoretical or historical. Katy Campus Houston Community College.
HCC in the Community Centers of Excellence. HCC's 15 Centers of Excellence focus on top-notch faculty and industry best practices to give students the skills they need for a successful career.. Learn more about our Centers -- from Energy and Consumer Arts & Sciences to Business and Manufacturing -- and partner with us today.