A Gallery of U. Postmasters' Provisional Stamps,
A Critique Please Wait. The essence of justice lies in Rule of law which requires that law of land is stable and not arbitrary that is to say, law is not ruled by the changing government rather the government and its instrumentalities are ruled by the law.
The ideal notion of the rule of law can be traced in ancient Indian legal system which laid greater emphasis on the duty, by making the king as the head of administration.
Dharma in ancient India did not denote any kind of religion or right but only the performance of the duties . Although the king was the fountain head of the administration of justice, his powers were limited by the norms of Rajadharma. There was no distinction between weaker and stronger and the weaker was able to prevail over stronger with the assistance of the king if his rights or liberty was encroached.
This duty approach setup of Rajadharma was distorted with the coming of the Moughals and subsequently after the coming of Britishers.
Power is like a river, if controlled, it brings happiness and prosperity otherwise destruction and curse. The constitution also kept few most cherished values of the humankind beyond the reach of these three organs . Constitution seeks to remove three kind of disparity namely social, economic and politicalso that weaker can prevail over stronger with the help of law if his right is violated and, Each organ of the state is required to work in this context without violating the power arrangement of the constitution.
There was no sanction and People used to follow Dharma on their own, because of its intrinsic merit . Since Dharma was entirely dependent upon the effective implementation of Rajadharma it was considered as supreme dharma.
This supremacy of Law has long before found prominence in the principles of Raja dharmathe constitutional law of ancient India. Unlike western kings whose command constituted the imperative law, in ancient India Dharma law was a command even to the king and was superior to the king.
Rules of Dharma were not alterable according to the whims and fancies of the king. The prevalent doctrine was that 'the law is the king of kings'. The doctrine that 'the king can do no wrong' was never accepted in our ancient constitutional system.
If the king violated the Rajadharma the punishment prescribed for him was one thousand times more penalty than what would be inflicted on an ordinary citizen.
Customs and sadhachars were also were also applied if they were in conformity to the Dharmas. King had no legislative power; It was vested in a sabha committee of wise people. Thus in ancient India there was independent judiciary and independent legislature. The King, under the codes of Rajadharma was bound to take cognizance, and therefore bringing a matter to his notice was enough to render it fit for judicial proceeding, to redress the grievances.
Thus the king was supposed to restore the stolen property to its owner and if he failed in performance of his duties he had to pay the owner the actual cost of the stolen property. Emphasis was on substance not on form.
The ideal laid down was that all the people should be happy Sarve Janah Sukhino Bhavantu. Whenever the right or liberty of an individual was encroached upon by another, the injured individual could seek protection from the law with the assistance of the king, however, powerful the opponent wrong doer might be.
Thus there was parity of powers between the individuals to seek the equal protection of laws. The present Indian judicial process is governed by British imposed adversary system even though there is no mention of it in the constitution.
Main attributes of this system can be understood under following heads: The formal access to justice is basically adjudication of disputes by the courts which follow the rules of Civil and Criminal Procedure.Published: Mon, 5 Dec Founded in , and headquartered in New Delhi India.
It is the most widely distributed postal system in the world where China is next with 57, post offices.
Agreements, Memorandums of Understanding (MOU) and Non-Fiscal Contracts This series documents agreements, other than contracts involving procurement or payment of monies, between departments within the locality, other localities, other government agencies, business entities or an individual or group of individuals.
The Civil Services Examination (CSE) is a nationwide competitive examination in India conducted by the Union Public Service Commission for recruitment to various Civil Services of the Government of India, including the Indian Administrative Service (IAS), Indian Foreign Service (IFS), Indian Police Service (IPS) among others.
Also simply referred as UPSC examination. Post-office is very helpful to us. It helps us in many ways. Through post office we send and get our letters. It is a branch of Indian postal department.
In past there was no post office at all. The letters were sent and got through messengers throughout the countries. It was an expensive thing as. This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of India.
the Indian postal service continues to function on a countrywide basis and provides many valuable, low cost services to the public of India. Postal history of India The. LINKto online archive that was active for Solstice Vol.I, No. 1 () through Vol.
28, No. 2 () as well as for books and more. All materials from that online archive are present in Deep Blue as are all materials later than the last date for that external archive.