Role and work of Magistrates Task: Watch the video clip below and write down 3 things that Magistrates do whilst sitting in court. Magistrates are volunteers who sit for a minimum of 26 half days per year in the Magistrates court.
For normal cases, the courts were made up of dikastai of up to citizens. In such large juries, the unanimity rule would be unrealistic, and verdicts were reached by majority. Juries were appointed by lot. Jurists cast a ceramic disk with an axle in its middle: Thus the way they voted was kept secret because the jurists would hold their disk by the axle by thumb and forefinger, thus hiding whether its axle was hollow or solid.
Since Periclean times, jurists were compensated for their sitting in court, with the amount of one day's wages. The institution of trial by jury was ritually depicted by Aeschylus in the Eumenidesthe third and final play of his Oresteia trilogy. In the play, the innovation is brought about by the goddess Athenawho summons twelve citizens to sit as jury.
The god Apollo takes part in the trial as the advocate for the defendant Orestes and the Furies as prosecutors for the slain Clytemnestra. In the event the jury is split six to sixand Athena dictates that in such a case, the verdict should henceforth be for acquittal Rome[ edit ] From the beginning of the republic and in the majority of civil cases towards the end of the empire, there were tribunals with the characteristics of the jury, the Roman judges being civilian, lay and not professional.
Capital trials were held in front of juries composed of hundreds or thousands of people in the commitias or centuries, the same as in Roman trials.
High government officials and their relatives were barred from acting as judices, due to conflicts of interest.
Those previously found guilty of serious crimes felonies were also barred as were gladiators for hire, who likely were hired to resolve disputes through trial by combat.
The law was as follows: An draft on criminal procedure produced by the Prussian Ministry of Justice proposed to abolish the jury and replace it with the mixed system, causing a significant political debate.
England and Wales[ edit ] Main article: They had no professional lawyers, but many of their farmer-warriors, like Njalthe truth-teller, were learned in folk custom and in its intricate judicial procedure. A Danish town in England often had, as its main officers, twelve hereditary 'law men.
These juries differed from the modern sort by being self-informing; instead of getting information through a trial, the jurors were required to investigate the case themselves.
Henry II set up a system to resolve land disputes using juries. A jury of twelve free men were assigned to arbitrate in these disputes.
As with the Saxon system, these men were charged with uncovering the facts of the case on their own rather than listening to arguments in court. Henry II also introduced what is now known as the " grand jury " through his Assize of Clarendon.
Under the assize, a jury of free men was charged with reporting any crimes that they knew of in their hundred to a "justice in eyre", a judge who moved between hundreds on a circuit.Start studying Lay people advantages and disadvantages.
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Notes on the State of Virginia by Thomas Jefferson - Part 2. Notes on the State of Virginia is Thomas Jefferson's only published book. He wrote it in , with updates in , in response to questions asked him by Francois Barbe-Marbois, the Secretary of the French Legation to America at the leslutinsduphoenix.com page is part 2 of Notes on the State of Virginia.
A jury trial, or trial by jury, is a lawful proceeding in which a jury makes a decision or findings of leslutinsduphoenix.com is distinguished from a bench trial in which a judge or panel of judges makes all decisions.. Jury trials are used in a significant share of serious criminal cases in almost all common law lawful systems (Singapore, for example, is an exception), and juries or lay judges have been.
Apr 01, · This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. leslutinsduphoenix.com explanatory notes relate to the Coroners and Justice Act which received Royal Assent on 12 November They have been prepared by the Ministry of Justice in order to assist the reader in understanding the Act.
They do not form part of the Act and have not been endorsed by Parliament. Assess whether Lay Magistrates should be replaced by District Judges Lesson Objectives In your groups, you will be creating a presentation on either the advantages or disadvantages of Lay Magistrates which you will present to the class.